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A Critical Appraisal of Botleys Mansion as an Intelligent Building from the perspective of an IT Specialist Supplier


This study examines the recent Botleys Mansion refurbishment and conversion into a working office environment for EDS in light of the following definition of an Intelligent Building.

An Intelligent Building is one where the building is able to adapt to changes of use and still remain able to service the occupants with a pleasant and convenient environment.

The house was built in 1765 by Sir Joseph Mawby, and over the years has been transformed from Residential use to accommodation for mentally ill patients and most recently into a flagship commercial building, having all the regalia that goes with a country residence.

After a recent fire had created substantial damage, a wide range of specialist trades were brought in for the renovation of Botleys Mansion, a number of whom having recently finished work on Windsor Castle. As much of the remaining structure was saved and then plaster, wood and banister designs were copied with the newly modelled material augmented into the surviving material.

Honeywell's long term relationship with EDS, as an IT supplier, created an ideal environment for a direct specialist to customer contractual arrangement which was based on a basic Suppliers Contract. The customer was able to communicate their needs more directly without the complexity of a long contractual chain. The downside of this simple relationship is that there are more risks if something should go wrong.

Lucent Technologies Category 5 Structured Cabling System was installed together with RiT Technologies PatchView patching management system which allows real time management of the Structured Cabling System. This patching management system provides easy control of Moves and Changes for the Occupier.

Being a Grade II listed building, Botleys Mansion posed certain restrictions on routing the cables and so required careful thought. Each floor was different and one had to be careful to abide by the Structural Engineer's guidelines. A couple of the floors actually had new floor voids created specifically for the purpose of creating a flexible office environment.

The sub-contractors that Honeywell used for the installation were a prime example of the benefits of Peer Group Learning, since over the years, DKR Electrical have been transformed from just another electrical contractor to a company able to proficiently install Category 5 data cabling systems to install and maintain hub networking equipment.

An unusual arrangement was created, whereby the electrical contractors 'ran in' the actual data cables, and Honeywell came along afterwards to terminate and test. This highlighted some difficulties such as proper training of the electricians was not envisioned and yet not enough supervision was included by Honeywell within the costs.

EDS have created a European Headquarters that makes a statement about itself as a company. Is this a company that has a respect for the past? Or is it emphasising its wealth and success? Have EDS managed to add value to this 'High Road' building to create a building that not only has been adaptable in the past, but will continue to be adaptable in the future?

The revised definition of an Intelligent Building adds the requirement for good information flow during its construction and modification periods, and leaves those that have been involved, enriched with more skills.

A Critical Appraisal of Botleys Mansion as an Intelligent Building from the perspective of an IT Specialist Supplier.

Definition of an Intelligent Building

An Intelligent Building is one where the building is able to adapt to changes of use and still remain able to service the occupants with a pleasant and convenient environment.


Stewart Brand was directed by the former State Architect of California, Sim Van Der Ryan, to draw a distinction in the ways Commercial buildings, Domestic buildings and Institutional buildings each change differently over time(1). Botleys Mansion is unusual in the respect that it has evolved through all three types of building and so provides an interesting target for study.

Site Description

Botleys Park is near Chertsey in Surrey and is set back from Stonehill Road. Access is via electronically operated gates combined with an intercom system linked to the security post in the Brew House situated to the side of the main house.


The earliest known reference to the park is 1319 when it was owned by John de Bottele and during the 16th Century it became known as Botlese and at one point was owned by Henry VIII. Sir Joseph Mawby bought the estate in 1758 and set about knocking the old house down with a view to getting Kent Couse to build the mansion in 1765(2).

Botleys Mansion was built in a Palladian style using honey coloured stone hewn from the quarries of Barrington and Headington. A large hall was built with a marble floor and doric columns(3) and the doors had gilded and painted door surrounds, the wide staircase had wrought iron banisters and the ceilings were awash with rich carvings.

Surrey County Council bought the house in 1929 for use in caring for backward children and adults. This was when a new wing was added to the mansion, along with villas within the grounds to house patients.


Nowadays more money is being spent on changing buildings, rather than on building new ones(4). It is interesting to note that the Welsh Secretary, Ron Davies, recently said that the first choice for the new Welsh Assembly meeting hall would have been Cardiff City Hall despite it being in poor condition. The only thing that stopped this happening was that Cardiff City Council wanted nearly three times the District Valuer's price of �3.5million and, since over �32million of work is required over the next five years, the Labour government decided to look elsewhere(5). Probe research by the Bartlett School found that there was 'growing activity in refurbishment'(6).

A recent fire destroyed many of the features of Botleys Mansion and EDS took on the project of renovating the building, changing its use to an executive office environment. English Heritage donated some money and provided guidelines to follow during the restoration work. The aim of EDS was to develop the site as the European HQ for the European directors, as a showcase developed to look and perform like a country house, but still have an efficient modern office environment, an image statement of the wealth and success of the company.

A number of specialist companies, with experience in grade II refurbishment were drafted in for the �6.5million project. Companies who were involved in the Windsor Castle restoration were used for restoration of the wood and the gold leaf. An 18th Century building historian was contracted to advise on aspects of the decor such as the chandeliers and the wall-coverings, which were all hand-painted with period designs unique for the building. Chippendale were involved in restoring and reproducing period furniture.

The wooden floor was taken away and the fire damaged areas cut out and replaced with new. The original panels were numbered, along with everything else. The doors were hand painted with the wood grain where new bits were inserted. The concrete pillars were covered in wood cladding which was then hand-painted with a very convincing marble effect. The walls were constructed from timber panels clad in hession and covered in plaster. The wooden and wrought iron banisters were reconstructed from remaining material, the original sections intermingled with the new and the iron rails were made to look artificially old by knocking them about. Other specialists worked on the ceiling covings and ceiling roses by retrieving the damaged original pieces and reconstructing whole elements around them.

Contract conditions

Groak describes the modern building team as being formed from a nesting series of temporary coalitions of people and organisations(7). There being two causes, firstly that the co-ordinating team of architect, engineer, consultant and the contractor are probably together for the first time and secondly, there is a plethora of specialist and labour-only subcontractors which create a major problem when it comes to co-ordinating the various 'trade-gangs'.

EDS have a preferred supplier relationship with Honeywell, as an IT supplier, which has existed for the past six years thus allowing good customer contact and early involvement with the project without the complexities of a multi-tiered contractual management system which can often work against the clients wishes. That EDS is prepared to involve a specialist at an early stage in such a high profile building within the company indicates the commitment that the company have to IT.

It is worth noting a general difference between Britain and Japan where separate specialist firms in Britain supply the 'sub-systems' whilst in Japan the large contractors source the specialist skills from within their own companies(8). An outworking of this is the way that Japanese contractors have developed close, long-standing links with customers and perhaps as a consequence, feel able to invest in long term Research and Development, able, therefore to provide specialist capabilities to a building project without being 'passive recipients' of the technologies evident in countries such as the UK(9). On the Botleys Mansion project, an unusual number of sub-contractors formed the construction team and this tends to create its own problems when trying to bring together the program and design co-ordination.

Because of the programming difficulties involved in running the data cables into areas that were being refurbished, the decision was made to give the electricians the job of pulling in the cables under the watchful eye of a Honeywell specialist installation engineer. The client also considered this to be a way of saving money. The electricians could pull the data cables in area by area as they also carried out the electrical cabling. Once an area had been completed, cable routes were sealed off whilst the restoration work was completed. Honeywell followed afterwards to terminate and test each data outlet.

The order from EDS, for the data cabling contract, came to Honeywell based on EDS' Standard Conditions of Purchasing. The contract conditions were the same as if EDS were purchasing a piece of equipment off Honeywell. There were no proper provisions for issues such as delays to program and manpower resource problems. This is a common way of working for direct to client contracts of this size (in this case, around �50,000 to Honeywell), it reduces administration costs and speeds up the communication channels between the specialist supplier and the client, however this increases the risk to the customer if the specialist fails to deliver. EDS felt no obligation to provide a project plan so Honeywell had to feel its way amongst the other trades and fit to their timescales, this informal liaison with other trades creates a risk. Honeywell spent more Man Hours than originally budgeted, either waiting for areas to be available for work, or negotiating time slots with the other sub-contractors who would not necessarily be answerable directly to EDS.

Data cabling

Steven Groak broadly defines an Intelligent Building as involving 'the application of IT to the co-ordination and control of building functions and the machines housed by buildings'(10). He progresses this to suggest that such buildings 'have been moving towards the status of robots for some time' and he goes on to suggest that the major impact may be in upgradings of existing buildings(11).

Complex High Road buildings cannot help but be unique, Brand cites an example of utilising an old laundry chute as a conduit for stringing fibre optic cable. As we shall now see, running a Structured Cabling System (See Appendix A for a brief overview of structured cabling) within a Grade II listed building poses 'opportunities' that require a little more thought than a standard office block(12).

For a description of the site see Appendix C.

The following schematic shows the data outlet and cabling distribution:

data outlets

Kilostream and Telephone lines were brought in to the 2nd floor Computer Room, and from here the telephone switch extensions could be distributed across the structured cabling. LJU to RJ45 adapters were used for each telephone connecting to the RJ45 (see the Glossary for definitions).

On the top floor there was a problem routing the data cables from the computer room. All cables had to be hidden so at the doorway to the computer room cables had to be routed above the lintel, and since the roof almost sat on the lintel, the cables had to be fanned out as they entered the new false ceiling. It would have been useful to use the eaves behind the switch room for the cable route, but due to the position of the computer room and the restrictive length of structured cabling this was not possible.

Once past the lintel the cables came across the 2nd floor ceiling void to the central core and then down the riser to the first floor ceiling void where the cables split into three bundles, left, right and down.

On the next floor down, the Pianonoble floor, there was a large floor void, the joists were suspended on brick pillars. Three compartment trunking was installed around the perimeter of the Pianonoble area and crossouts were installed to cross the floor void from one side to another where the joists would allow. In some circumstances flexible conduits had to be built to cross between trunking runs due to the awkward nature of the floor void space. Power and data sockets were both mounted into the floor itself, by way of specially built oak floorboxes, and into sockets mounted into the oak panels in the wall, thus minimising the visual impact. In the areas where there was a new false floor installed, the doors and frames were shortened accordingly to give an average floor void of 4 inches.


Some interesting items came out of this unusual contract, from an IT Specialist point of view. Honeywell had allowed only 5 days supervision within its costs, this meant that a supervisor tended to visit the installation for one or maybe two days a week throughout the installation. It became apparent that this was no where near enough.

No provision was made for properly training the electricians, whose priority, after all, was their own trade. For instance, data cables should be run from the outlet right back to the frame and dressed into the patch frame in a manner that makes it easy to terminate. Instead the cables were placed at the frame in large bundles which took an extra two days to regroup the bundles at the frame. Another problem encountered was that initially, the electricians misunderstood the requirement for the installation of the data cables, in that, although four cables were required per workstation, this was understood to mean the four pairs within the data cable itself so only one pair was installed per work location. Fortunately, the Honeywell supervisor discovered this early on in the project so that this area could be revisited before cable routes were sealed.

The sub-contractor, DKR Electrical, employed by Honeywell, for the data outlet terminations, is a company which is regularly used and is a very good example of where Peer Group Learning(13) has transformed DKR from it's original form as an electrical contractor to a data cabling installer and, incidentally, has more recently picked up the more complex skills required for Local Area Network (LAN) maintenance and repair. In the near future Honeywell will be providing training for DKR on Wide Area Network (WAN) equipment maintenance. This Peer Group Learning means that instead of having several separate sub-contractors dealing with the electrics, LANs, WANs, Data cabling etc. there can be just one, thereby minimising administration, costs and providing one port of call for the client so that the client has more chance of getting everything that is required.

Free coffee was provided for all contractors throughout the duration of the project, and interestingly, this created a more concentrated focal area where there was often discussion between different sub-contractors which can only have helped the project as a whole.

As an aside, there was evidenced and interesting result of building design, on one occasion during the project, a delivery turned up of some 6ft x 4ft mirrors. These were destined for the Gym, however, due to the fact that the spiral staircase was the only access, it appeared that there was no way of getting these mirrors to the gym. In the end, a gap of about 20mm was found to exist all the way up one side of the staircase, and with four people, it was just possible to squeeze each mirror up through this gap.


In the past couple of years an advancement has been introduced to the management of structured cabling. RiT Technologies have produced a Category 5 compatible patching system which monitors current patch status and immediately detects patch changes. This system was augmented into the Structured Cabling System at Botleys Mansion to allow the client easy management of the IT part of the Moves and Changes (MACs).

With PatchView software the client could plan MACs in advance and send patch change information to Scanners installed within the data racks (See Appendix B for a brief overview of the RiT PatchView system).

Using LEDs to indicate patching changes causes the whole patching job to be so much simpler, it is no longer necessary to have someone carry out the patching who is fully conversant with the system

The client has already had a number of years experience with Honeywell's installations and so was already familiar with the standard structured cabling system. At the end of the project, in order to familiarise the client with the Patching management software, Honeywell included a days training for 6 members of the client's computer staff taking them through setting up an initial patching database for the site.


Something to consider in this project is that it is an owner occupier building fulfilling a specifically defined role for EDS, rather than a general purpose office building fit for letting or selling on. Perhaps this gives out a subconscious message of affluence and success, there is no requirement to count the pennies, there is room for some indulgence.

What image is EDS trying to portray? A company set in it's ways? Stayed? Inflexible? Perhaps a company willing to move with the times? Or perhaps, simply a wealthy successful company? Wealth allows you to spend money on maintaining and reproducing the past, the status quo. The idea that building design must be fixed at the time of the initial design has become much more forceful since the 18th Century(14). A opposite situation is Richard Rogers' Lloyds Building which looks and is flexible, Lloyds being driven by the idea of flexibility rather than image(15).

On evaluation of the completed project, Honeywell reckoned that about 15 days were needed for someone on site during the whole period, three times more than was costed for. There is a cost to skill sharing, the electrical contractors have gained data cabling knowledge from the mistakes made and will no doubt carry out a more proficient job of running in data cables in the next project. Honeywell, being the IT specialist, have had to spend more time supervising the cable installation.

In any structured cabling system, it is important to site the wiring closets correctly, i.e. as central to the building and as close to the risers as possible, in order to minimise horizontal cable runs. In Botleys Mansion the only place allowed for the wiring frames and the computer equipment was in the roof, in one corner of the floor. This location is, unfortunately the worst place possible as it increases the cable runs significantly.

The benefits of Didactic teaching(16) are evident within this contract, an interesting situation where new crafts in IT mixed with traditional crafts. Honeywell are considering setting up an apprenticeship scheme where the broad range of IT skills from data cabling design and installation through LAN/WAN design and configuration and on to the set-up of front end software such as Windows NT for Building services Management software. This is perhaps akin to the Japanese model, moving to a 'one company, supply all' approach to building contracting, particularly within the specialist arena.

What of the question of adaptivity? Can we consider Botleys Mansion to be an adaptable structure? The original architect certainly had no idea of the building being used for anything other than a country home. If we take Brand's 'six S's'(17); Site, Structure, Skin, Services, Space Plan and Stuff, and then apply them to Botleys mansion then we can see how the layers have changed over the years. Evidence, perhaps of the 'Adaptive Building' which allows 'slippage between the differently paced systems'. So perhaps Botleys Mansion is a very good example of Brand's 'High Road' building. 'Age plus Adaptivity' is what causes a building to be loved, the building learns from its occupants and they learn from it(18). Botleys Mansion has proved itself not to be obsolete for at least the foreseeable future.

In his essay 'Building Pathology and it's Lessons', Steven Groak begins with 'It is somewhat meaningless to speak of a building's lifetime'. How old is Botleys Mansion now? It's foundations were laid in 1769 but it's staircase is largely made up of new wood. The Pianonoble floor is a patchwork of new and original timber, renovated door panels have wood grain hand-painted in to match in with the grain of the surviving panels.

The use of IT in the project planning stage would have enabled more efficient information sharing, e.g. having .DXF files available for the floorplans thereby knowing where to route cables, drill holes place outlets and document this as another layer for the client. In the planning stage of the project, having a good 'IT Decision Support System' would further enlighten each of the different trades and professions to each others scope of ability. There would also be the added benefit of this information being available across future 'building lifecycles'(19).

Revised Definition of Intelligent Building

In light of the earlier definition of an Intelligent Building can we determine whether this building is intelligent?

On the face of it, we can clearly answer a resounding yes!

Botleys Mansion has been successfully transformed through three forms of building, Residential, Institutional and now Commercial. It has shown adaptability, however, the expense in transforming it into its Commercial phase has been immense. Can we really classify the Mansion as an Intelligent Building if it cost so much to produce a more flexible structure?

The resulting environment is very pleasant, there exists a comprehensive gym, beautiful and historically accurate decor, and the mansion nestles in very mature parkland.

The building is able to adjust within itself, as staff move around and rooms change their use, and all this can be managed efficiently and accurately, it is very convenient.

From this study, however, and the conclusions raised within it, we can perhaps amend the definition of an Intelligent Building to the following:

An Intelligent Building is one which accurately fulfils the occupier's needs and desires in terms of image, comfort and convenience; can adapt to change without major cost; has a complete record of all the services within it resulting from efficient information flow throughout its period of construction (or re-construction); and leaves those that have worked on its construction, richer in knowledge and skills.

Appendix A - Structured Cabling

The first to produce the Structured Cabling System was AT&T (Now Lucent Technologies(20)) and was initially a Category 3 Unshielded Twisted Pair system (Supporting bandwidths up to 16MHz and digital data transmissions of up to 10Mbps) which was designed to be installed as a physically star-wired system that would be capable of carrying signals from various data systems which, traditionally, required their own proprietary cable systems.

The big advantage of this system is that one could flood wire RJ45 sockets throughout the building, installing more sockets than are required to be live. The problem of gridding in an old building such as Botleys Mansion can be quite acute due to the limited number of locations available for outlets. Floodwiring outlets in an office environment, often requires an outlet density of 4 outlets per point on a 3m grid which is easily achieved in a false floor scenario, but in areas of oak flooring and the such like, one has to be quite creative in order to achieve such outlet densities.

Moves and Changes (MACs) become a much simpler operation as you detach flyleads from old sockets and re-attach them to new locations performing simple patch changes in the relevant wiring closets. This system offsets it's initial outlay costs with the cost savings gained by not having to rip up carpet and floor tiles to install another proprietary cable run.

Additionally, via the use of baluns (balancing-unbalancing adapters) protocols such as Token Ring can run on the UTP instead of the proprietary Type-1 STP cable, 10BaseT Ethernet (As used in Botleys mansion) can be used instead of 10Base5 or 10Base2 Ethernet which run on Thick or Thin Coaxial cable. The ability to run all these protocols comes from the design of the UTP cable itself, a 4-pair cable with each pair twisted with a different number of twists per foot and then the pairs themselves twisted upon each other. This gives minimal Crosstalk problems between the pairs and limits Electromagnetic (EMC) radiation outside of the cable sheath.

The more recent Category 5 cable standard supports bandwidths up to 100MHz and digital data transmissions up to 155Mbps(21) and this is the system that is now most frequently installed. It is common for the system manufacturers to supply 15 year system and application warranties, thereby providing the client with a guarantee that the system will work using present and future applications that operate within the system specifications.

10MHz is the frequency of the signal commonly supported on the cable, Category 3 is fine for a protocol such as 10BaseT Ethernet which has a carrier signal running at 10MHz and a digital signal running at 10 Mbps (Mega bits per second). 155Mbs ATM runs on approximately 80 MHz and therefore requires a Category 5 cable (specified for applications requiring bandwidths up to 100MHz). Compare these speeds with voice signalling which is typically 4KHz.

The EIA/TIA-568 stipulates that horizontal cable runs (between wiring closet and workstation outlet) should not be more than 90m(22). These can rules dramatically effect building space planning and can be most difficult to administer in a building where there are severe restrictions on space use and cable run creation. A more traditional cabling system such as an old Ethernet 10Base2 system allowed runs of up to 185m and 10Base5 system allowed up to 500m for one cable run. Because each cable run on these old systems could have up to 29 stations it meant that the bulk of cable installed within a building had a similar impact to small and medium power cabling. The 90m rule in Structured Cabling System design forces the designers to plan carefully the siting of wiring closets, normally as close to risers as possible and in positions which allowed outlets to be fed to all corners of a building.

The size of a 4 pair cable such as the ones used in this installation is 5.6mm in diameter, and 50m cables would require 75mm cable runs. There are certain rules which must be adhered to when running in Category 5 cables(23). No more than two 90 degree bends between pull points are allowed when installing, the cable runs must be a minimum of 120mm away from fluorescent lighting fixtures and there is a table showing minimum separation of Telecommunications Pathways from power lines (less than 480v) that must be adhered to in order to minimise interference on the data cabling24. Multicable bundles must be installed so that each cable maintains its position within the bundle throughout the run and the bundle is tie-wrapped at least once every 3m, each wrap tied so as not to squeeze the outer sheath.

Appendix B - Network and Patching management

In the RiT Technologies PatchView system the technology used is Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) where an Agent sits in a box which is both connected to the LAN and also has ribbon cable connections to each panel and a wiring matrix on the panel provides a continuity signal for each port via a 5 pair patch cord. LEDs above each port give a visible indication to the person patching within the wiring closet, only one or two LEDs are lit at any one time and they indicate the ports that require unpatching, one at a time, and then the new ports that require patching, again, one at a time. The SNMP Agent sitting within the 'Scanner' sends 'Traps' to the SNMP Management Station which is usually a PC or Unix box sitting on the network running Network Management software such as SNMPc and PatchView (RiT's proprietary patching database configuration tool).

Appendix C - Site Description

Access to the Ground floor is from the courtyard. The Ground floor has been converted to raised floor for use as office space.

The first floor is called the Pianonoble, and this floor is mainly marble (for the entrance hall) and oak floor, sockets are mounted in the oak panelled walls. The entrance at the front of the house takes you straight into the Pianonoble floor at the marble floored entrance hall.

The next floor up is raised floor and is designated the First floor.

The top floor is where the plant room and the communication rooms are located, it sits in the roof and is called the Second floor. Light comes from a domed skylight about 15 feet in diameter, (interestingly, this dome has been known to confuse local air traffic due to the uplighting arrangement sited around the rim of the dome).

There was an existing dry riser by the lifts (Installed many years before) and this route seemed the most sensible one to use for the bulk of the data and electrical cabling. The Structural Engineer insisted that the cable runs should be concealed and could only use existing holes in the joists, the only exception being when cables entered a room, elsewhere cables had to run under and over joists within the floor and ceiling voids. In order to link the main house with the two storey Brew House new underground ducts were built with three compartments allowing separation between power and data cables.

Appendix D - Future Cabling standards

The fast approaching future cable standards are Category 6 (specified to 200MHz, allowing data speeds of 1.25Gbps such as the 1000BaseT standard which is almost finalised) and Category 7 (specified to 600MHz) (30). Once speeds beyond Category 6 are required, the likely expensive design of the Category 7 cable, which needs inter-pair shielding and revised connectors, is likely to finally bring fibre to the desk. Out of interest, Lucent Technologies claim that their GigaSPEED solution will conform to the Category 6 standard when it is finally ratified. The cable and outlet connectors used in Botleys Mansion were products which form part of Lucent's GigaSPEED solution so that the current Category 5 installation could be converted to a Category 6 installation merely by replacing the patch panels.


(a) NEXT is the acronym for Near End Cross-Talk which is the interference between each pair with each other measured in dB. More recently, a term Powersum has been used to refer to the sum of NEXT on all pairs in a given cable. Powersum has become more important as certain technologies such as 100BaseVG AnyLAN use more than two pairs.

(b) 10Base2 refers to Ethernet protocol running on Thin coaxial cable (or 'Thinnet'), the 10 refers to 10MHz and the refers to 200m for the maximum distance the cable can run (In fact it is 185m). 10Base5 uses a more robust Thicknet coaxial cable to allow a longer distance run of 500m. 10BaseT refers to 10Mhz running on Twisted Pair (which can be shielded or unshielded).

(c) RJ45 (Radio Jack) is an American 8-wire plug connection similar to BT's 6-wire Line Jack Unit (LJU) which we know as the telephone socket.


General references used were:

Heritage and Technology, New Ways of Working in Historic Buildings - DEGW ETL, English Heritage, Lucent Technologies.
RiT PatchView Marketing Kit.
System Design and Installation Manual, EDS - Botley Mansion, Chertsey Issue 1 September 1997.
Bell Laboratories Introduces the Systimax GigaSPEED Structured Connectivity Solution - R.J. Paradine Jr. - 22nd Sept. 1997
'The Quest for Cable Control' - Motti Kleinmann, Cabling World, June 1997.
Paul Garcia from Avon Environmental Services Ltd. (the electrical contractors) was very helpful in giving his perspective on the project.
Jim Murphy (Properties IT Infrastructure) of EDS was able to give a project perspective from the point of view of EDS.

More specific references are as follows:
  1. How Buildings learn - Stewart Brand
  4. Page 5, How Buildings learn. - Stewart Brand
  5. Labour Party press release W97540-dev entitled 'Ron Davies Welcomes The Government of Wales Bill'.
  6. 'Launching a Probe into Orbit' - Bartlett School
  7. Page 128, The Idea of Building - Steven Groak
  8. Page 1, Intelligent Building Technologies: Japan and Singapore, DTI Overseas Science and Technology Expert Mission Visit Report, June 1992 - David Gann (University of Sussex Science Policy Research Unit)
  9. Page 25, Intelligent Building Technologies: Japan and Singapore, DTI Overseas Science and Technology Expert Mission Visit Report, June 1992 - David Gann (University of Sussex Science Policy Research Unit)
  10. Page 113, The Idea of Building - Steven Groak
  11. Page 115, The Idea of Building - Steven Groak
  12. Page 38, How Buildings learn. - Stewart Brand
  13. Page 165, The Idea of Building - Steven Groak
  14. Page 155, The Idea of Building - Steven Groak
  15. Page 158, The Idea of Building - Steven Groak
  16. Page 166, The Idea of Building - Steven Groak
  17. Page 20, How Buildings learn. - Stewart Brand
  18. Page 23, How Buildings learn. - Stewart Brand
  19. Page 7, IT Decision Support in the Construction Industry: Current Developments and Use in the United States, DTI Overseas Science and Technology Expert Mission Visit Report, September 1996 - David Gann, Stuart Groak plus others (University of Sussex Science Policy Research Unit)
  20. Lucent Technologies Website
  21. 'The Future of Cabling' - Arthur Green, Cabling World, Sept. 1997
  22. Page 4-17, AT&T's ND5600 Category 5 Update Course
  23. Page 3-15, AT&T's ND5600 Category 5 Update Course
  24. Page 85 - EIA/TIA-569

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